1895-LeeThe Winchester Lee Model 1895 (also known as the Lee Rifle, Model of 1895, caliber 6-mm, Model 1895 Lee Navy, 6mm Lee Navy, Lee Rifle, Model of 1895, etc.) was a straight-pull, cam-action magazine rifle adopted in limited numbers by the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps in 1895 as a first-line infantry rifle. The Navy’s official designation for the Lee Straight-Pull rifle was the “Lee Rifle, Model of 1895, caliber 6-mm”. It fired a 6mm (0.236-in. caliber) cartridge, used an early smokeless powder, was semi-rimless, and fired a 135-grain (later 112-grain) jacketed bullet. The 6mm U.S.N. or Lee Navy Cartridge was also used in the navy version of the Colt-Browning Model 1895 machinegun.

Production History and Development
By 1894, the U.S. Navy desired to adopt a modern small-bore, smokeless powder rifle in keeping with other first-line naval powers. Naval authorities decided that the new cartridge should be adaptable to both rifles and machine guns. As the military forces began adopting smaller and smaller caliber rifles with higher velocity cartridges, U.S. naval authorities decided to leapfrog developments by adopting a semi-rimless cartridge in 6-mm caliber, with a case capable of holding a heavy charge of smokeless powder. On August 1, 1894 a naval test board was convened at the Naval Torpedo Station in Newport, Rhode Island to test submitted magazine rifles in the new 6mm Navy government chambering. Per the terms of the Notice to Inventors, the new government-designed 6mm U.S.N aka Ball Cartridge, 6mm was the only cartridge permitted for rifles tested before the Naval Small Arms Board. Both the ammunition and rifle barrels were supplied by the government; the barrels, made of 4.5 per cent nickel steel, used Lee-Metford-pattern rifling with a rifling twist of one turn in 6.5 inches, and were supplied unchambered with the receiver thread uncut. The rifle action was required to withstand the firing of five overpressure (proof) cartridges with a chamber pressure of 60,000 psi.

In the first set of service trials, the naval small arms board tested several submissions, including the Van Patten, Daudeteau, Briggs-Kneeland, Miles, the Russell-Livermore Magazine Rifle, five Remington turn bolt designs (all with side-mounted magazines), and the Lee straight-pull. In a second set of trials the Model 1893/94 Luger 6-mm Rifle and the Durst rifle were also considered, along with a Lee turning-bolt design. The Durst prototype fractured the receiver in firing and was withdrawn from the test, while the Luger Rifle performed excellently. Luger’s submission had only one major disadvantage: it failed to meet government specifications, having been chambered in a non-standard rimless 6mm cartridge. The Lee turning bolt design was considered to be a good one, but marred by its magazine system, which the Small Arms Board found to be problematic. The Board thought so highly of the Luger Rifle that it recommended purchase of either a prototype or an option to purchase the rights to manufacture. Apparently this never came to pass, as Luger not only declined to submit its design in the Navy’s government 6mm chambering, but withdrew from the third round of the service trials. The Lee straight-pull rifle with its charger-loaded magazine was chosen as the winner in repeated small arms trials, and was selected for adoption by the U.S. Navy in 1895 as the Lee Rifle, Model of 1895, caliber 6-mm, aka the M1895 Lee Navy.

First Contract
The first naval contract for the M1895 was let to Winchester for 10,000 rifles in January 1896 (serials 1-9999). However, deliveries of the initial shipment of 10,000 rifles were not completed until 1897, owing to delays caused by manufacturing issues, as well as contract changes imposed by the navy. The latter included a significant change in ammunition specification, which required extensive test firings followed by recalibration of the sights.

Of the 10,000 rifles produced under the first contract, 1,800 were issued to the U.S. Marine Corps. Marine battalions scheduled to be equipped with the 6 mm Lee rifle did not begin to receive their new rifles and ammunition until 1897, two years after adoption of the cartridge and rifle. Colonel-Commandant Charles Heywood of the Marine Corps reportedly refused small initial allotments of the 6mm Lee rifle to the Corps until he was given assurances that the Corps would be immediately issued at least 3,000 Lee rifles, improved target ranges, and most importantly, enough ammunition for Marine units to continue their existing marksmanship program. Despite this threat, the September 1897 report of the Marine Corps Quartermaster to the Secretary of the Navy urgently requested a minimum additional $10,000 in funding to purchase sufficient 6mm ammunition to allow Marines to conduct live fire and target practice with the Lee rifle. The report warned that, except for drill practice, enlisted Marines were “entirely unfamiliar with the use of this arm”, since all target practice still had to be conducted using the old single-shot Springfield and .45-70 black-powder ammunition. Rifles with a serial number below 13390 (approx.) were made prior to December 31, 1898. Additional smaller purchases were subsequently made to replace lost weapons, mostly in response to a fire at the New York Navy Yard which damaged or destroyed about 2,500 rifles; around 230 rifles were condemned as not restorable. The additional small quantity purchases by the Navy as well as all sporting models fall into the 10000–15000 serial range, purchased between the two major contracts. Some confusion arises as to production dates for the sporting rifles as many of the commercially manufactured and numbered receivers (not USN marked) were not made into complete rifles until 1902, and sales continued until 1916. Military rifles have 28-inch (71-cm) barrels and navy anchor stamp, while rifles made for civilian sale have 24-inch (61-cm) barrels and no anchor.

Second Contract
A second contract was let on February 7, 1898 for an additional 5,000 rifles at $18.75 each. This second contract (serials 15001 to 20000) began delivery in August 1898 and was completed in December 1898.

Non Contract Military Sales
Military pattern rifles were produced throughout the civilian range of 10000 to 15000. The earliest production rifles conformed to first contract US Navy specifications. Most, however, had the latest Navy improvements: a gas shield machined as part of the bolt rather than pinned and brazed on, a sighting groove in top of bolt, a low bolt stop, a roller firing pin lock and sometimes a hardened screw on the side of the receiver for the Navy extractor to contact.

The later production rifles reflect the improvements Winchester implemented in response to problems of extraction and gas leakage. A number of rifles, both military pattern and sporting, were noted as “A” model. This referred to the front-mounted short extractor spring, bolt with two gas holes on top, floating firing pin, and gas vent on the left side of the receiver. Some rifles are recorded as “Style A Except Extractor & Spring last Navy style”.

Other common notations with dates in the 1902 to 1906 period are: “to Russ (date)” and “(date) Imps”. This is found both alone and in combination with the “A” designation. Many of the early rifles were altered by milling a second slot farther back along the left side of the receiver for the end of the short front-mounted extractor spring to bear against. Most of the rifles will have the leaf sight notch centrally located rather than offset like the Navy contract rifles.

The serial number ledgers denote 169 of the arms as muskets. The author has examined some of these muskets but could not find any visible difference between a musket and the standard military pattern rifle.

The US Navy purchases in this range will have the US Navy inspector and sub inspector stamps. The military pattern rifles purchased by civilians will have the Winchester proof, an oval with P or WP enclosed, stamped on the receiver ring.

There are at least four distinct groupings of the military pattern rifles. Two are US Navy purchases.

The first group consists of US Navy purchases as replacements for losses in the New York Navy Yard fire. The need for more rifles became critical as the Navy and Marine Corps mobilized for the Spanish-American War. Very little is known about these replacement rifles and so far no official record of their purchase has surfaced in the Bureau archives. Springfield Research Newsletter, Issue #53, April – June 1990 has a serial number listing of 96 Lee rifles turned in by the Marine Corps Barracks, Pensacola, FL on September 17, 1900. There were 11 rifles in the 10800 to 11300 range. One rifle in this range has turned up – number 10843 – inspected by Lt. William B. Whittelsey USN. It was shipped April 25, 1898, along with 14 other rifles, to order number 7686.

These rifles are stamped on the receiver ring in the normal Navy manner: – U.S.N. – over an anchor over No. xxxxx over – W.B.W. – . The side of the receiver has the standard Winchester manufacture and patent date markings. Lt. Whittelsey’s inspection stamp, a triangle with a W enclosed, may be found on the butt plate near the lower butt plate screw.

An examination of the known serial numbers published by SRS and their associated Winchester order numbers reveals that over 250 rifles were shipped to the Navy on April 22, April 25 and July 7, 1898 under seven different order numbers. The standard notation “Rifle 1st Model” was used with no indication that these were sold to the Navy. It is possible that over 800 rifles were purchased during this crisis period as there are a number of other orders with multiple rifles. Positive identification will have to wait until additional Navy inspected rifles in this group appear.

The second group of 186 rifles is also a US Navy purchase. These rifles are stamped on the receiver ring: – U.S.N.M. – over an anchor over No. xxx over US Navy inspector initials – X.X.X. -. This Navy number, unlike prior Navy purchases, is not the same as the Winchester serial number. It ranges from 1 to 186. The Winchester serial number is lightly stamped on the right receiver rail. These rifles have the same characteristics
as the later Navy rifles: sighting groove on top of bolt, hardened screw on side of receiver, low bolt stop, and roller firing pin lock. They do not have the Winchester improvements of short front-mounted extractor spring, twin bolt gas vents, floating firing pin and gas vent on side of the receiver.

These rifles were ordered and issued after the Joint Army Navy Board met in December, 1898 and recommended a uniform caliber and rifle for the services.

The 186 USNM stamped rifles fall into three clusters. The first cluster of 70 rifles, between the Winchester serial numbers of 11252 and 11718, were shipped on July 14, 1899 to order number 30337. Observed serial numbers are:

Win S/NInspectorUSNM No.
11609JNJ30
11510JNJ41
11404JNJ69
11372JNJ70

These rifles were apparently randomly pulled from stock, inspected by Lt. John N. Jordan, USN and stamped with the USNM numbers in sequence from number 1 to 70.
The second cluster of 16 rifles, in a block between the Winchester serial numbers of 13869 and 13884, were shipped on April 29, 1901 to order number 94631. These rifles were shipped with knife bayonet and scabbard.
Observed serial numbers are:

Win S/NInspectorUSNM No.
13870CAB72
13875CAB77
13879CAB81
13883CAB85
13884CAB86

These rifles were inspected by Lt. Charles A. Brand, USN and both the Winchester and USNM numbers are in sequence, beginning with USNM number 71 and ending with USNM number 86.

The third cluster of 100 rifles, in a block between the Winchester serial numbers 14084 and 14183, were shipped on October 15, 1901. The first 50 rifles were shipped to order number 1118 70 and the second 50 were shipped to order number 1118 71. The only observed serial number so far is:

Win S/NInspectorUSNM No.
14176FHS179

These rifles were inspected By Lt. Frank H. Schofield, USN and both the Winchester and USNM numbers are in sequence, beginning with USNM number 8 7 and ending with USNM number 186. The ledger lists these as “Musk (et) 6m/m,” however, a close examination did not reveal any differences from the standard Navy rifle.

There are no notations in the Winchester records as to who ordered the rifles. The Springfield Research Newsletter Issue No. 53, April, 1990 notes that the Navy Inspector of Ordnance at Hartford, in his monthly reports, stated that 16 Winchester-Lee rifles were delivered in April 1901 and that 100 additional Winchester-Lee rifles were ordered during the period July to September 1901. This is consistent with the Winchester ledgers.

There is some discussion over the meaning of the USNM markings. The author contends that it stands for United States Naval Militia, but no US Navy records have been found specifically authorizing this marking or documenting the shipment of these rifles to a state naval militia. The naval militia battalions were and still are separate state organized units reporting through the state Adjunct-General to the governor. They did receive congressional appropriations that were supplemented by state and, in the case of the New York City battalions, city funds.

Thus, the wealthier battalions had the means to purchase equipment on their own. The third group of military pattern rifles were the 221 that were factory altered to a sporting rifle configuration beginning in 1908. This group is discussed in the chapter on sporting rifles.

Sales of the fourth group, true civilian military pattern rifles, were slow. Winchester made 4,298 rifles in the civilian range; 1,563 are identified as factory sporting rifles, with another 100 or less first pattern sporting rifles sold but not recorded as sporting rifles. The US Navy purchased 1,014 military pattern rifles including those stamped USNM. This leaves 1,621 military rifles available for civilian sales. The factory altered 221 of these military pattern rifles to sporting rifle configuration in 1908.

Winchester had on hand almost one half of the approximately 1,400 military pattern rifles manufactured when it, on August 16, 1913, offered to sell to the El Paso, TX firm of Shelton-Payne Arms 566 Lee Muskets,
566 bayonets and 396 scabbards. The price was $6.00 for the musket, $1.00 for the bayonet and $0.20 for the scabbard. Shipping added $0.96, and ammunition was $22.00 per thousand without clips and $2.00 more with clips. The offer was not accepted. Winchester did sell the bulk of these rifles in 1914. The purchaser is not known, but 465 rifles were shipped February 14, 1914 to order number 561,508.

There were over 300 rifles, mostly military pattern, listed as being received in the warehouse but never recorded as being shipped. These arms, mostly in the 11000 to 13000 serial number range, were received in the warehouse in 1898 and sent to Russ in the 1902 to 1906 period for improvements. Their final disposition is not known. If these rifles were retained and later broken up by Winchester, then civilian sales of military pattern rifles would ‘drop to around 1,100.

A number of rifles are noted in the Winchester Firearms Reference Collection (WFRC) and other records.

Serial number 10073, WFRC W3180, was sent to the cartridge shop August 20, 1897.

Serial number 10271 was sent to the Navy on December 2 7, 1897 with the revised bolt stop.

Serial number 10273, WFRC W449,”like Navy first order.”

Serial number 10301 was used for ammunition testing.

Serial number 10476, WFRC W792, “like Navy first order.”

Serial number 10983, WFRC W447, “like Navy first order.”

Serial number 11575, WFRC W450, “latest style” November 23, 1900.

Serial number 12364, WRFC W793, “style furnished Navy during Spanish-American War.” Serial number ledger has a shipping date of March 9, 1917 to showroom case.

Serial number 12601, WRFC W448, barrel chambered and bored for 7m/m cartridge. Bore .2755, 9″ twist, September 1906.

The last record for a Winchester-Lee was April 22, 1926 when military pattern rifle number 11101 was returned from the Broadway Store, New York City to the warehouse and had a knife bayonet fitted. It became W 446 in the Winchester Firearms Reference Collection.

Reliability in the Field
Overall, the Lee had a reputation for reliability in the field, though some issues were never overcome during the rifle’s relatively short service life. Beginning in 1898, during the Marine expeditionary campaign in Cuba, reports emerged from the field criticizing the floating extractor design. The firing pin lock and bolt-lock actuator were relatively fragile, and would occasionally break or malfunction, while the tension in the en bloc cartridge clips proved difficult to regulate, occasionally causing failures to feed.

Design and Operation
Magazine System

The Lee’s magazine system was improved over the prior navy rifle, the M1885 Remington-Lee, by incorporating a charger-loaded magazine system and an action capable of handling high-velocity, small-caliber smokeless cartridges. Designed by inventor James Paris Lee, the rifle weighed 8.3 pounds (3.7 kg) and was about 48 in (122 cm) long. It was the first American military rifle to be loaded by charging an en bloc clip or charger of five 6mm cartridges into the rifle magazine, similar to the Mannlicher charger system. Lee later claimed in an unsuccessful lawsuit that his single-row charger-loaded magazine patent was infringed by von Mannlicher, but most historians agree that Mannlicher and Lee independently developed their en bloc magazine systems along separate but parallel lines.

After inserting the clip, the charger was then given a second push to ready the first round for chambering. Closing the bolt stripped off each round in succession, feeding the next cartridge into the chamber. The clip itself dropped free from the magazine when the first cartridge had been loaded. Unlike the M1892 Springfield (Krag) and the later M1903 Springfield rifle, the Lee straight-pull did not have a magazine cut-off to enable the cartridges in the magazine to be held in reserve in keeping with the prevailing small arms military doctrine of the day. The Chief of Ordnance considered the Lee clip to be superior to either the Mauser stripper clip or the Mannlicher clip, as cartridges were not required to be stripped from the clip into the magazine (like the Mauser ‘stripper clip’ system), yet the Lee clip was not an essential part of the magazine (like the Mannlicher system), since it dropped out after the first cartridge was loaded, and since single cartridges could be loaded into an empty or partially loaded magazine to replace cartridges fired. This conclusion was in conflict with the Naval Small Arms Board, which did consider the Lee clip to be an essential part of the magazine.

When specifying the requirements for its new service rifle, the Navy emphasized that it desired a repeating rifle loaded by means of chargers or clips, but “since the conditions of service may require the use of loose cartridges, or may result in the disabling of the magazine, it is desirable that the small arm be susceptible of use as a single loader, and that the magazine be capable of being replenished by single cartridges. The new Lee rifle and its magazine met all of these requirements, enabling a rifleman in an emergency to use the loose cartridges taken from loaded belts supplied to machine gun crews for the 6 mm Colt-Browning machine gun.

Bolt Mechanism
Along with the M1885 Remington-Lee and the M1892 Springfield, the M1895 Lee was one of the first infantry weapons adopted by U.S. forces to be equipped with a repeating action. To operate the straight-pull mechanism, the operating handle is first pulled up at an angle to disengage the bolt and its wedge lock, then pulled sharply to the rear to extract and eject the spent case. Pushing forward on the bolt handle strips a round from the magazine; as the bolt is slammed home, the bolt’s wedge lock seats into place, the firing pin is cocked, and the fresh cartridge is seated in the chamber. Once the M1895 is cocked, the rifle’s bolt cannot be retracted unless the bolt-release lever is pushed downward. This prevents opening of the action caused by an inadvertent bump or contact to the bolt handle. The rifle has a safety located on the top of the receiver, which is released by pushing down with the thumb on the safety button.

Unlike many other military rifles of the day, the Lee was not fitted with a turning bolt. Though frequently described as a straight-pull action, the M1985 Lee actually utilizes a camming action in which a steel wedge or locking block beneath the bolt is forced into a recessed area in the receiver. Pulling the operating handle back causes the bolt to rock back and upwards, freeing a locking stud on the receiver and unlocking the bolt. The firing pin cocked on final closing where the resistance would be overcome by the forward inertia of closing the action. Once the rather odd “up and back” bolt movement was mastered, and as long as the action was clean and well-lubricated, it worked fairly well, though the slightly inclined opening stroke proved awkward for some men when the rifle was operated from the shoulder. Despite this, the Navy’s Chief of Ordnance noted with approval that the Lee rifle could be fired “with great rapidity”, achieving a rate of fire considerably faster than most existing turn-bolt rifles of the day.

Sights and Other Features
The M1895 was equipped with a ladder-type rear sight adjustable to a maximum of 2,000 yards, determined by actual firing at Winchester in March 1896. Because of the relatively high velocity and flat trajectory of the 6mm Lee cartridge, authorities calibrated the sights at their lowest setting with a point-blank or dead aim range of 725 yards (663 m). The latter was intended for use on targets at all ranges from point-blank to 700 yards. The single battle setting was intended to discourage individual soldiers or marines from adjusting their sight elevation unless firing at mass targets at extreme ranges, in which case officers would give commands for ranges to be set in such situations. Owing to the necessity of supplying the Navy with rifles as soon as practicable, no provision for drift (windage) was included in the rear sight. The prominence of the front sight and its exposure to damage led to the adoption of a sheet metal front sight cover for the 10,000 rifles in the original order. The front sight cover was browned (blued) to reduce glare. Each rifle was tested at Winchester for accuracy by firing a group of three shots at 50 yards, any rifle not showing the desired accuracy was returned to the line for adjustment, which sometimes involved restocking the entire rifle.
The rifle was equipped with a firing-pin lock on the left side of the receiver, which acted as a safety. Pushing down on the slide-type lever unlocked the firing pin striker and made the weapon ready to fire.

With its slim-contour 28-inch (710 mm) barrel, the rifle was slightly muzzle heavy. With practice it could be rapidly fired, recocked, and reloaded without taking the rifle from the shoulder. Contemporary reports and subsequent tests indicate that the M1895 and its ammunition were exceedingly accurate: target groups approaching a minute of angle at 100 yards were not unusual with individual rifles. The M1895 was normally issued with a sling, bandoliers, and a modern 8.18-inch (208mm) knife-type bayonet. Individual sailors and marines were issued a black leather belt with adjustable cross suspenders, fitted with twelve black leather ammunition pouches. The Lee Navy bayonet was the forerunner of short pattern bayonets still in use today.

Ammunition
In December 1894, after a series of test evaluations with both rimmed and rimless 6mm cartridges, the U.S. Navy adopted the 6mm U.S.N. or 6mm Lee Navy cartridge. It was the first U.S. military round to use a metric caliber in its official designation, the first cartridge designed for use in both rifles and machine guns, and the smallest-caliber cartridge to be adopted by any military power until the advent of the 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge in 1964. The original 6mm ball loading was supplied by Winchester, and used a round nosed, cupro-nickeled steel-jacketed lead-core bullet with a total weight of 135 grains. In March 1897 a new military loading was adopted using a 112-grain (7.3 g) round-nose, copper-jacketed (FMJ) military loading developing 2,560 feet per second (780 m/s) and 1,629 ft·lbf (2,209 J) of energy at the muzzle. Besides providing increased velocity and a flatter trajectory, the primary reason for the change in cartridge and bullet design was to reduce chamber pressures and extend the life of the rifle barrel: the new 112-grain loading with its copper-jacketed bullet gave an average barrel life of 10,000 rounds as opposed to only 3,000 for the 135-grain steel-jacketed load. Ordnance authorities specified a slightly slower rifling twist for the new loading – one turn in 7.5 inches (18 cm). At some point during later production, this rifling was again changed to one turn in 10 inches RH (25 cm).

The U.S. 6mm Lee Navy (6mm U.S.N.) cartridge used by the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps was initially supplied by Winchester Repeating Arms (WRA) and later, the Union Metallic Cartridge Company (UMC). The rifle powder was Rifleite, a nitrocellulose flake powder supplied by a British company, the Smokeless Powder Co. Ltd. The cartridge was semi-rimmed, and was designed to function in machine guns such as the M1895 Colt-Browning as well as in infantry rifles. Intended for primarily for shipboard use against enemy naval forces in small boats, the 6mm Lee had considerably more penetrating power than the U.S. Army’s .30 Army (.30-40 Krag) cartridge, and could perforate 23 inches (58 cm) of soft wood at 700 yards (640 m), a single 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick steel boiler plate at 100 feet (30 m), or a 0.276-in. (7 mm) plate of chromium steel (no backing) at 150 feet.

Another advantage to the 6mm cartridge was in the reduced weight of the ammunition: 220 6mm cartridges weighed approximately the same as 160 cartridges in .30 Army caliber. The basic combat ammunition load of an 1898 naval bluejacket or marine was 180 rounds of 6mm ammunition packed five-round chargers (clips), and carried in black leather ammunition pouches. Outfitted in this manner, a navy bluejacket or marine could carry considerably more ammunition than that of the typical Army trooper of the day, who usually carried 100 rounds of .30 Army ammunition in individual cartridge loops on his Mills canvas cartridge belt.

However, the 6mm U.S.N. cartridge may have been too advanced a concept for the technology of the day. The Navy experienced continued problems with the Rifleite smokeless powder used in the cartridge, which appears to have varied in consistency from lot to lot, while becoming unstable over time. These problems were exacerbated by the custom of keeping ammunition aboard ship for long periods under conditions of high heat and humidity. After some use, many Lee rifles developed bore and throat erosion, and metal fouling due to unburned powder compounds, a problem intensified by substandard internal barrel finishing at the factory. The M1895 Lee was also the only military rifle to use Metford rifling, which British authorities had discarded because of its tendency to wear too easily when used with the smokeless powders of the day.

Naval and Marine Service Use
The M1895 Lee was carried aboard Navy ships for use by naval armed guards (bluejackets) and landing parties, and was the standard service rifle for enlisted Marines, both seaborne and guard forces. Fifty-four USN Lee rifles were recovered from the Battleship Maine, which was sunk in Havana harbor in 1898. These were eventually sold to Bannerman’s, a military surplus dealer. Surviving examples seen of the confirmed Maine rifles have pitted receivers, which would be logical considering the salt water immersion in Havana Harbor.

After the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, the M1895 was issued to marines of the First Marine Battalion aboard the naval transport USS Panther, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Robert W. Huntington. As far as is known, all Marine companies involved in the Cuba combat operations were equipped with the 6mm Lee rifle. In addition to service with the First Battalion, additional rifles were later distributed by navy quartermasters to elements of free Cuban forces revolting against the Spanish government. The Marine assault force had only just been issued their Lee rifles, and enlisted men aboard the Panther were hurriedly given lectures on operating and field-stripping their newly issued rifles aboard ship, along with ten 6 mm rounds each to fire for familiarization purposes. During a four-day call at Hampton Roads, Virginia, and later during a two-week stopover at Key West, Florida Lt. Col. Huntington ensured that all enlisted Marines aboard the USS Panther underwent target practice on the beaches with the Lee rifle, as well as marksmanship training and small-unit battle drills. This last-minute opportunity for target practice and training proved fortuitous, as Cuban guerrillas later handed Lee rifles had some initial difficulty operating and using them, while Lt. Col. Huntington’s marines had no such problems.

The first major combat use of the M1895 occurred during the land campaign to capture Guantánamo Bay, Cuba from June 9–14, 1898 with the First Marine Battalion, in particular at the battles of Camp McCalla and Cuzco Wells. During the battle of Cuzco Wells, Marines using the M1895 Lee effectively engaged concentrations of Spanish troops at ranges up to 1,200 yards, using volley fire against groups of enemy soldiers while their officers called out the range settings. Though some problems were noted with the new rifle, the flat ballistics, accuracy and rate of fire of the M1895 and the light weight of its 6 mm ammunition proved to be of considerable benefit during offensive infantry operations over mountainous and jungled terrain against both Spanish regulars and loyalist guerrilla forces. The extra cartridges proved useful when early ammunition resupply from Navy ships was disrupted at the outset of the Guantanamo operation, allowing Marines to continue their assault even while individually resupplying Cuban rebels who had run short of ammunition. After the battle of Cuzco Wells, the surviving members of the retreating Spanish garrison informed the Spanish General Pareja at Ciudad Guantánamo that they had been attacked by 10,000 Americans.

The M1895 would see considerable action in the Pacific during the Spanish-American War and the early stages of the later Philippine–American War with U.S. Navy and Marine personnel. During the Moro Rebellion of 1899–1913, it was reported that some Marines preferred the M1892/98 Springfield (Krag) rifle and its .30-caliber ammunition to the M1895 Lee Navy and its 6mm U.S.N. cartridge, believing the latter to have inadequate shocking or stopping power against frenzied bolo-wielding Moro juramentados, who attacked from jungle cover at extremely close distances. In this situation, the 6mm Lee bullet may have over penetrated without causing sufficient shock and trauma to the enemy, a situation which the Chief of the Bureau of Naval Ordnance had foreseen as early as 1895, when he acknowledged the concern that “the wounds produced by small-caliber bullets will frequently not be sufficient to put the wounded out of action and their shock will not stop the onset of excited men at short range”. On the other hand, the Marine Legation Guard, which used the 6mm U.S.N. cartridge in the defense of the foreign legations in Peking during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, apparently had no such criticisms. U.S. forces equipped with the Lee rifle in the first (Seymour) relief expedition advancing from Tientsin to relieve the Marines at Peking were able to transport some 10,000 rounds of 6mm ball for the riflemen as well as a Colt machine gun crew, and consequently never ran short of ammunition, unlike other Western forces, who were forced to capture the Imperial Chinese arsenal at Hsiku to find enough cartridges to continue fighting. During the same expedition, Marine sharpshooters using the Lee Navy rifle managed to eliminate the gun crews of two heavy artillery batteries using only rifle fire.
However, the service life of the M1895 as a first-line infantry weapon was soon to end. In December 1898, a board of officers from the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps officers recommended that all services adopt the .30 Army cartridge and the small arms and machine guns chambered for it. The board did acknowledge that the rimmed .30 Army round was less than ideal when used in modern machine guns, and that the decision to adopt the .30 Army for the Navy and Marine Corps might be postponed until a rimless version of the .30 Army had been developed. The board’s recommendations were later adopted by the War Department.

In the end, the Navy and Marine Corps decided not to wait. As early as November 1899, the Navy placed its first contract for 1,000 Model 1892/98 “U.S. Army magazine rifles” (aka the Springfield or Krag) in .30 Army (.30-40) caliber, with the first M1892/98 rifles issued to the newest pre-dreadnought battleships Kearsarge and Kentucky. New contracts for M1892/98 rifles were let as the U.S. Navy continued to expand, though the M1895 Lee and its 6mm cartridge would continue to see service aboard Navy vessels well into the turn of the century. The U.S. Marines continued to use the M1895 Lee rifle until January 1900, when they received Model 1892/98 rifles in exchange (Philippines and Far East Marine battalions were the first to receive the new rifle and ammunition). The Navy continued to use the M1895 Lee as its primary small arm through at least 1903. From 1910 to 1911, both the M1895 Lee and the M1892/98 service rifles were supplanted in Navy and Marine Corps service by the new M1903 Springfield rifle in .30-06 caliber, though the M1895 Lee would remain in service aboard some ships of the fleet into the 1920s, albeit as a secondary (drill practice) arm.

References:
M1895 Lee Navy, Wikipedia – Wikipedia
The Winchester-Lee Rifle, Eugene Myszkowski, Excalibur Publications, pages 43-47

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